Account Abstraction

Account abstraction is a new concept that is making headlines on blockchain and smart-contract platforms. It’s a popular subject because it is designed to streamline how users interact with decentralized applications (dApps). The fundamental idea is to abstract away the complexities of blockchain interactions and provide a user-friendly, secure interface for using and managing applications.

In traditional blockchain interactions, a transaction is typically initiated by a users directly signing some data with their private key and transmitting that to the blockchain for validation. Account abstraction simplifies this process by making the transaction initiation and validation programmable. Essentially, it allows the transaction logic to be customized within a smart-contract, vastly extending the scope of UX possibilities.

The Abstract SDK provides what we call an Abstract Account, an extensible smart-contract wallet capable of holding tokens and interacting with other smart contracts. The ownership structure of the Abstract Account is customizable to fit the needs of the developers and their applications. It is designed to be highly programmable, allowing developers to build and distribute complex applications on top of it.


See EIP-4337 to read about account abstraction in the Ethereum ecosystem.

This concept of account abstraction, when implemented correctly, can provide numerous benefits:

  • Improved User Experience: Users can interact with smart contracts more seamlessly, without worrying about the underlying blockchain complexities. The verification model can be tailored to feel like familiar web2 experiences.

  • Enhanced Security: By shifting validation logic to smart contracts, a variety of security checks can be implemented to guard against unauthorized transactions. This could include multi-factor authentication, whitelisting, and more.

  • Reliable Fee Payment: Account abstraction can enable smart contracts to pay for gas, thereby relieving end-users from managing volatile gas prices or even paying for gas at all.

In the following sections, we’ll discuss how Abstract utilizes the concept of account abstraction, ensuring modularity, security, and scalability in applications built using the Abstract SDK.

Abstract Apps

Abstract Apps are smart-contracts that add functionality to an Abstract Account. Here’s a small snippet of code to give you an idea of how an App is created with the Abstract SDK:

fn main() {
pub const COUNTER_APP: CounterApp = CounterApp::new(COUNTER_ID, APP_VERSION, None)
    .with_replies(&[(1u64, handlers::reply)])

The code above defines an Abstract App. This app can be installed on any Abstract Account through the Abstract App store, allowing developers to monetize their code.

The customizable handlers that are used in the builder are functions similar to the native CosmWasm entry-point functions. They expose an additional App object which, via the abstract-sdk, empowers you to execute intricate multi-contract transactions with minimum code. Importantly, this simplification does not limit the contract’s programmability. Instead, it provides a balance of efficient coding and comprehensive control over inter-contract interactions.

In the upcoming section we will explore the architecture of Abstract Accounts, providing insights into its design.